How to Say “By” in Korean: Formal and Informal Ways

Welcome to this comprehensive guide on how to say “by” in Korean. Whether you want to express the notion of “by” as in “created by,” “written by,” or “sent by,” understanding the various ways to convey this concept in Korean is essential. In this guide, we will explore both formal and informal ways to express “by,” and provide you with valuable tips, examples, and insights. So let’s dive right in!

1. Formal Ways to Say “By” in Korean

In formal Korean language, there are a few different expressions that are commonly used to convey the meaning of “by.” Each expression may have its own appropriate usage depending on the context. Here are some of the most common ones:

1.1. -로써 (-rosseo)

The expression “-로써” is a formal way to say “by” in Korean. It is often used when expressing the means or method by which something is done. Here are a few examples:

  • 영어로써 이메일을 보내세요. (Please send an email in English.)
  • 이 건물은 그의 디자인 로써 건축되었습니다. (This building was constructed by his design.)

1.2. -에 의해 (-e uihae)

The phrase “-에 의해” is another formal way to express “by” in Korean. It is often used to indicate the cause or agent responsible for an action. Here are a couple of examples:

  • 이 소설은 유명한 작가 에 의해 쓰여졌습니다. (This novel was written by a famous author.)
  • 사고는 운전자의 부주의 에 의해 발생했습니다. (The accident occurred due to the driver’s carelessness.)

2. Informal Ways to Say “By” in Korean

When it comes to informal situations, Korean has a range of expressions that are commonly used to convey the meaning of “by.” Using informal language appropriately is important, so let’s take a look at some of the informal ways to say “by” in Korean:

2.1. -로 (-ro)

The particle “-로” is commonly used in informal speech to mean “by.” It is less formal compared to “-로써” and “-에 의해.” Here are a few examples:

  • 카카오톡으로 전화번호를 공유했어요. (I shared my phone number via KakaoTalk.)
  • 저는 한국어로 이야기하고 싶어요. (I want to talk in Korean.)

2.2. -랑 (-rang) / -이랑 (-irang)

Informally, “-랑” is a shortened form of the Korean word “와/과 (wa/gwa)” meaning “and” but can also be used to mean “with” or “by.” “-이랑” is an extended form of “-랑.” Here are a couple of examples:

  • 우리 함께 영화 보러 갈래요? (Do you want to go watch a movie with me?)
  • 이 앨범은 아이돌 그룹의 컨셉이랑 방송사의 지원으로 만들어진 것입니다. (This album was created by the concept of the idol group and supported by the broadcasting company.)

3. Regional Variations

In general, the expressions mentioned above can be used across Korea. However, it’s worth noting that there may be slight regional variations in how people say “by” based on dialects or personal preferences. These variations are more prominent in informal speech. Nevertheless, the tips and examples provided in this guide are applicable in most situations throughout Korea.


Congratulations! You have now familiarized yourself with both formal and informal ways to say “by” in Korean. Remember that using the appropriate expression depends on the context and formality of the situation. By practicing these expressions and paying attention to cultural nuances, you’ll soon master the art of expressing “by” in Korean effortlessly. Keep up the great work and enjoy your language learning journey!

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